At the End of Breath ...

Ghain        غ

The letter Ghain(غ) is pronounced as the French "r" of the word "paris".

The sound produced is a "greasy" sound fricative never confused with the "rrolled.




At the contact zonefriction occurs at the location of the tongue root, resting on the soft palate.





The distinctive articulatory features of the

Letter Ghain(غ):





غ#VocalAbsence of breath

Vocal cords participate in the sound production, in fact, the sound is initiated at the level of the vocal cords.




غ #Al 'Ismât, The impediment,

It is a heaviness that affects the letter, because of its pronunciation and its articulation does not occur on the tip of the tongue or lips






غ#The Release,Total sound flow.








غ#Al Isti'la,The sound and the tip of the tongue are directed towards the palate.






غ#The Release,The sound is not compressed between the tongue and the palate.

Fa             ف


The letter Fa(ف) produces sound

Identical to the english "f", like in the word "force".




It is an unvoiced median constrictive


The Constriction occurs with the tip of the upper incisors on the inside of the lower lip.



It is a labiodentales, the lower lip on touch the incisors so as to leave a horizontal slot or the vertical openings(between the teeth) that are very narrow.




The distinctive features of the letter

Fa(ف) during its articulation:






ف# UnvoicedPresence of breath, the vocal cords do not participate in the sound production 





ف # final letters,

The sound is articulated at the end of the phonatory and expiratory device,

here, on the lower lip!






ف#The Release, Total sound flow.







ف#Al Istifal, Sound does not point toward





ف#The Libération,The sound is uncompressed between the

tongue and the palate.

Qāf                    ق


The letter Qāf(ق) is a vocal occlusive uvularthe articulation is made with the back of the tongue against the uvula.





During its articulation, the bottom of the tongue comes into contact with the soft palate, where the occlusion occurs.






The distinctive features of the Qāf(قduring its articulation:






ق#Vocal, Absence of breath, the sound is originally emitted from the vocal cords, which will consciously enter into vibration!





ق #Al 'Ismât, The impediment,

It is a heaviness that affects the letter, because of its pronunciation and its articulation does not occur on the tip of the tongue or lips! 





ق#Al Shiddah, Total stop of the sound, feature highlighted in the absence of vowels.






ق#The Elévation, Direction of sound toward the palate.






ق#The Libération,The sound is not compressed between the tongue and the palate.






قAl Qalqala:

 In the absence of vowels,

There is a strong impact on the articulation point of the letter




Impact due to the abrupt separation of two organs of pronounciation without opening the mouth or rounding of the lips or lowering of the lower jaw.

Kaf                    ك

 The letter Kaf(ك) produces the sound "k" of

the Word "kangourou" in english.

 It is an occlusive dorsopalatale or dorsovélaire,



 the back part of the tongue comes into contact with the soft and hard palate, place of the articulation, place of the occlusion.


Occlusives are produced by the back of the tongue leaning against the palatal arch as the place of occlusion can actually go from the prepalatal region to the velar region

And being determined by the nature of the vowel that precedes or follows.




In englishfor example, the "k" of "kin"is anteriorized under the influence of the "i", while the "k" of "come" is posterior, or velarized!





Distinctive features of the articulation

Of the letter Kaf(ك):






ك#Unvoiced, Presence of breath, without vibration of the vocal cords.





ك #Al 'Ismât, The impediment,

It is a heaviness that affects the letter, because of its pronunciation and its articulation does not occur on the tip of the tongue or lips




ك#Al Shiddah, Total stop of the sound in the absence of vowels.







ك#Al Istifal,The sound does not go toward the patate






ك#The Libération,The sound is not trapped between the tongue and the palate.

Lam                   ل

The letter Lam (ل) produces sound similar to that of the english "l", its articulation is similar.



It is a vocal continuous lateral constrictive, the articulating organ, the tip of the tongue, comes into contact with the point of articulation(teeth, alveoli, or prepalatal region).




There is occlusion, but this occlusion takes place only in the middle of the buccal canal,




and the air escapes from both sides(sometimes on one side only) of the place of articulation; Hence comes the phonetically correct, precise and sure name of lateral.




There is indeed a low noise due to the friction of the air current against the lateral edges of the tongue.




Normally sounded, the "l" can muffle in combination with the unvoiced(like in French the "l" of "plat"), or usually at the end, after a dull occlusive (like in the word "souple" in french).



The distinctive articulatory features of the letter

Lam (ل):





 ل#Vocal, Absence of breath, the vocal cords come into action in the production of the sound 

It is called vocalized!




ل # final letters,

The sound is articulated at the end of the phonatory and expiratory device,

Here, on the tip of the tongue!





ل#The Clarification, Partial sound flow.





ل#Occasionally emphatic, the sound then moves toward the palate, and the tip of the tongue will retreat to its point of support.





In other cases Lam(ل) is thinned and the tip of the tongue will have a dental,alveolar position.





ل#The Liberation,The sound is not trapped between the tongue and the palate.





ل# Al Anhīrāf: Deviation of the sound from its original point of articulation.






The sound is deflected to both sides of the tongue, the end of the tongue blocking its passage!

Miim               م

 The letter Miim(م) produces a sound similar to that of "m" in english as in the word "muscles".





It is a nasal consonant, it is articulate with the veil of the palate detached from the pharyngeal wall and lowered towards the back of the tongue.




As a result, the passage of air through the nasal cavity is open.





The nasal occlusion corresponds quite precisely to oral occlusion, but the organe which form the buccal occlusion are pressed less strongly against each other,



and on the other hand the air thrust which the organ undergo is much less, Since the air escapes freely through the nose.



Thus, nasal occlusion presents this peculiarity of having both an occlusion(at the level of the buccal duct) and a freepassage(at the level of the nasal fossae), this last trait explains their great sonority.



Normally, the nasal consonants are sounded,ie they are vocalized,But they can also be deafened by "assimilation" as in the word "comunism" in english.




The distinctive features of the letter






م#VocalAbsence of breath, thus, the sound is initiated at the level of the vocal cords that will vibrate under the "conscious" action of certain muscles!




 م # final letters,

The sound is articulated at the end of the phonatory and expiratory device,

Here,on the lip




م#The Clarification, Partial sound flow.

In the absence of vowels, the sound flows partially,




and this is due in large part to the "nasal" character of the letter.

The fact that the nostrils do not close, will always leave a part of the breath out!





م#Al Istifal,The sound does not go towards the palate.






م#The Libération,The sound is not trapped between the tongue and the palate.



م# Al Ghunnah:

The Nasal vibration

Twang due to the point of articulation, the nasal cavity and naturally accompanying the articulation of the letter Miim(م).




The nasal cavity is going to be the place where the breath passes, causing the various cavities in contact with it to vibrate.



Thus, the frontal cavity (or frontal sinus), the ethmoid cavity, the sphenoid and the maxillary cavities vibrate under the effect of the passage of air!

Noun                  ن


The letter Noun(ن) is an apicoalveolar nasal occlusive.





The tip of the tongue masses against the alveoli of the upper teeth, in the same place as to produce the sound "l".



If we alternate the "l" and the "n", we feel very well the complete closing movement that the two sides of the tongue make for the "n", while they lower and open to let pass The air freely for the "l".




The distinctive features of the letter Noun(ن):





ن# Voiced,Absence of breath.

Indeed, the sound is like the "Miim" initiated at the level of the vocal cords, which will vibrate under the effect of specific muscles!




 ن # final letters,

The sound is articulated at the end of the phonatory and expiratory device,

Here, on the tip of the tongue!



ن#The Clarification, Partial sound flow.

Like for the Miim, in absence of vowel, the letter Noun has a partial flow of sound due to its "nasal" articulation point which can not totally prevent the sound from flowing.




Indeed, the nostrils stays always "open", allow the partial flow of air and therefore the specific sound!






ن#Al Istifal,The sound does not go towards the palate 






ن#The Libération,The sound is not compressed between the tongue and the palate.





ن#Al Ghunnah: Nasal Sound due to the nasal articulation, which vibrates at the passage of the air.




This vibration will put the cavities around in resonance, stimulating among other things the pituitary gland located in the sella turcica behind the frontal bone!

Ha                    ه

 The letter Ha(ه) has the sound of the "haspired in the word "horse" or "hit" in English.






It is a median constrictive

Continuous sound.





 Its place of production is the larynx, which involves a tightening of the

vocal strings.




For the articulation of the sound, it seems that the interlegamentary glottis is closed and in vibration, and the intercartilaginous glottis open:






this is where the breath passes, producing a rustling noise.






The distinctive features of the letter







ه#Unvoiced, Presence of breath, without  intervention of the vocal cords that remain at rest!




ه #Al 'Ismât, The impediment,

It is a heaviness that affects the letter, because of its pronunciation and its articulation does not occur on the tip of the tongue or lips





ه#The Release, Total sound flow in the absence of vowels!






ه#Al Istifal,The sound does not go towards the palate.






ه#The Liberation,The sound is not trapped between the tongue and the palate.

Wa                     و

 Although the letter Wa(و) produces the sound "u" as in the word "glue" in english, it is not a vowel, but consonant.




For the sake of simplicity, the "vocabulary" of vowels will be maintained in order to facilitate informational transmission.



It is a consonant spirant, consonant produced By a moderate approximation of the phonatory organs which does not go so far as to produce the characteristic friction noise of the fricatives.



The shape of the buccal resonator determines the tone ('a', 'i', 'u', 'an', 'in', 'å', 'ā', 'è'...)of the vowel.




In the case of the letter Wa(و), the mass of the tongue is in the post-palatal or velar region.




  It is a labialised dorsovelaire; Upper posterior vowel,The back of the tongue is raised in a movement of elevation towards the uvula and the soft palate.



It is called oral, the veil of the palate is raised, the nasal canal is closed, the air is exclusively expelled from the mouth.




It is called labialized, the jaws are very close one of each other, the lips are rounded in a forward projection motion.





Normally sounded(participation of the vocal cords in the sound system), the sound may be partially muffled by a deaf(non-vocalizedconsonant.





The distinctive features of the letter Wa(و):





و#VocalizedAbsence of breath, the sound is produced by the vocal cords, which vibrate under the action of the vocal muscles 




و #Al 'Ismât, The impediment,

It is a heaviness that affects the letter, because of its pronunciation and its articulation does not occur on the tip of the tongue or lips! 




و#The Release,Total sound flow when the letter don't carry a vowel.







و#Al Istifal, The sound does not go toward the palate.





و#The Libération,The sound is not compressed between the tongue and the palate.





و# Al Līn:

Pronunciation with softness and effortlessness of the letter Wa(و) when it carries a soukoun(absence of vowels)





and is preceded by a letter bearingfatha (vowel that corresponds to the sound "a").

Ya                     ي

As for the letter Wa(و), and

Alef (ا), the Ya (ي),

although it has the sound of the "e" of the word "free" in english,



it is classified among the consonants in the Arabic abjadia(word used to designate the alphabet, but in contrary of the consonants and vowels classification, is based in arabic on a consonant nomenclature only!).




From an articulatory point of view, the sound is produced with the back of the tongue raised and projected towards the anterior part of the palate.




It is an anterior dorsopalatal unlabialized (the lips stretch changing the effect of resonance, the sound is said pulled).



During the articulation of the Ya(ي), the jaws are very close together, the veil of the palate is raised, preventing the air from escaping from the nasal passages, it is called oral.




The distinctive features of the letter Ya(ي) during its articulation:






ي# Voiced, Absence of breath, it is called vocalized: the vocal cords participate in the production of the sound.




ي #Al 'Ismât, The impediment,

It is a heaviness that affects the letter, because of its pronunciation and its articulation does not occur on the tip of the tongue or lips! 





ي# The Release,Total sound flow.







ي#Al Istifal,The sound does not go towards the palate.






ي#The Libération,The sound is not trapped between the tongue and the palate.




ي# Al līn:

Pronunciation of the letter Ya(ي) with ease and effortlessly when the letter carries  "assoukoun" (absence of vowels)





and preceded by a letter with Al-Fatha(vowel "a").