Endocrine System

The endocrine glands control the functions of the body through chemicals called hormoneswhich are released into the bloodstream.

The different organs of the endocrine system are located in regions sometimes very distant in the organism.

The pituitary gland is in the cranial cavity, the thyroid in the neck, the thymus in the thorax, the adrenal glands and the pancreas in the abdomen, ovaries and testicles in the pelvis.

The hormones it releases regulate the fundamental drives and emotions,

Such as sexuel drive, anger, fear, joy or sorrow.

They also stimulate growth and sexual identity, control body temperature, help repairinjured tissues and help to generate energy!


The pancreas is located just behind the lower part of the stomach.





It is the second most bulky organ in the body.

It produces insulin and also the glucagon hormone.





Insulin and glucagon function in complementarity, if the insulin secretion is too low, the glucose level increases...





This is what happens in diabetes, the most common pathology of the endocrine system.

Hypophysis or pituitary gland

The pituitary gland is a small gland the size of a pea, located at the base of the brain, in a small depression of thesphenoid bone call the sella turcica.





It is under the control of the hypothalamusto which it is attached.






It is sometimes referred to as a master gland because it serves as a binding agentbetween the nervous system and the endocrine system.




The pituitary produces several hormoneswhich serve to regulate the other endocrineglands,

But also the retention of water by the kidneys.




Another hormone triggers contractions of the uterus during childbirth,

And then stimulates the production of milkby the mammary glands.




One of the most important pituitaryhormones is growth hormone(GH).

It controls growth by regulating the amount of nutrients absorbed by the cells.





Growth hormone also works in conjunctionwith insulin to regulate blood sugar levels.

Thyroid and parathyroid gland



The thyroid gland is located at the neck and secret two hormones.





One of these hormones intervenes on the growth rate and the metabolism of all the cells of the body.




It controls reflexes and regulates the rate at which the body produces energy and transforms food into elements that make upthe body.





The other hormone decreases the amount of calcium in the blood.






The small parathyroid glands are located at the back of the thyroid gland.





They produce a hormone that works closelywith thyroid hormones to maintain serum calcium homeostasis and avoid excesscalcium in the blood, called hypercalcemia.

The Thymus


Overlying the heart, the thymus is a bilobed organ mainly composed of lymphocytes in the process of maturation.





The lymph carries the white blood cells to this organ, where they proliferate and transform into special cells responsible for fighting infection.




Although the function of the thymus is not yet fully understood, it is known to be an important element in the development of immunity to various diseases.

The adrenal glands

The adrenal glands cover the upper part of each kidney.

They secrete hormones that help to fightstress.




Large amounts of hormones are releasedwhenever the sympathetic nervous systemresponds to intense emotions, such as fearor anger.



This may trigger a "fight or flightreaction in which blood pressure increases, the pupils dilate and the blood is directed primarily to vital organs and skeletalmuscles.





The heart is also stimulated.






The adrenal glands also produce hormonesinvolved in energy production, which regulate the metabolism of carbohydratesfats and proteins.




Another hormone controls the hydroelectrolyte balance.

This equilibrium is paramount for the contractility of the muscles.