The Tongue

The Thongue is a very mobile muscle, which can take many positions in the mouth and also on itself, dug towards the middle, turned backwards...


Functionally divided into four parts, the Root, the Back, the predorsal part with which one moistens the fingertips when turning the pages of a magazine, and finally the apex or tip of the tongue.



The Thongue can affect the configuration of the vocal tract.It plays a fundamental role in the form of the Buccal resonator.From this point of view, three cases are considered:




#The Anterior vowels: the mass of the back of the tongue is in the pré-palatal region:




#The posterior vowels: the mass of the tongue is in the post-palatal or velar region;






#The central vowels: the mass of the tongue is in the medio-palatal region.

The volume of the buccal resonator

 The volume of the buccal resonator dépends directly on the degree of aperture, 






ie the distance between the highest point of the tongue and the palate.









It therefore corresponds to the opening of the

Voice Conduct.









 The Thongue is divided into three Distinct parts:







# The apex, the tip of the tongue 








#The back 








#The root of the Tongue







Each of these parts will come into contact with the zone of the palate associated with it, creating a zone of friction or occlusion;





Fact that will determine the type of letters produced, or the type of sound heard!

The root of the tongue and associated sounds

Adna-l-hålq is in arabic term designating the part of the tongue closest to the throat in Arabic.




This part, coming in contact on the uvula and the most posterior part of the palate will create zone of friction






 producing the sound غ(Ra) that is found in the word "Paris" in french.






Still in this same zone but further on the soft palate, the tongue will come to producezone of friction to produce the sound خ(Khā),




which is similar to the sound of the "jota" like in the word "pajaro" in spanish!

The back part of the tongue


Aqśa-l-lisān literally means the furthest area from the tongue.






This moving part comes into contact with the soft palate creating an occlusion to produce the sound ق (Qāf).






When this occlusion is made further forward, in contact with the soft and hardpalate,






the sound produced is ك (Kaf) as in the english word "crusty".

The Middle of the Tongue


The middle of the tongue with the middle of the palate is the place of production of three distinct sounds:






The ي (Ya), the ش (Shiin), and the ج (Jiim).






These sounds are produced by reducing the buccal canal, by raising the tongue towards the palate without making any "contact".




The mass of the tongue is projected towards the anterior part of the palate, to produce the sound ي(Ya).






The dorsopalatal canal is even more

Reduced when articulations the sounds ش (Shiin)





And almost in occlusion without this being performed for the sound ج (Jiim).

The edges of the Tongue

The edges of the tongue are the place of production of two defined sounds:

The ض (Dåd) and the sound ل (Lam).






One or both sides of the tongue will exert pressure on the upper molars, with the tip of the tongue glued to the upper incisal papillae 





producing the sound ض (Dåd), a phoneme exclusive to the Arabic language.







The two edges of the tongue:







The part closest to the tip will come into contact and bear on the hard patate area just above the incisal papillae to create an occlusion.




   This point of contact will cause a deflection of the air, which will escape from both sides of the tongue to produce the sound ل(Lam).

The tip of the tongue

The tip of the tongue(tarafou-l-lisān), resting on the root of the upper incisors is the zone of articulation of the sounds:






# Ta(ت), which corresponds to the english "t".








#  (ط), emphatic letter of "t".







Dal (د), which corresponds to the english  letter "d".






The extremity of the tongue(tarafou-llisān), resting on the base of the internal surface of the lower incisors,





the sound of these letters passing between the upper and lower incisors.

 It is the zone of articulation of the sounds:





Zay(ز), which corresponds to the sound "z" of the word "base" in english.






# Siin (س), which corresponds to the sound  "s" of the word "spécial" in english.






# Sād (ص), emphatic letter of the "s".







The extremity of the tongue(tarafou-l-lisān), resting on the extremity of the upper incisors is the zone of articulation of the sounds:





# Tha (ث), which corresponds to the sound "th" of the wordthree" in English.






Żā (ظ), which is the emphatic sound of the letter Zal(ذ)





# Zal (ذ), which corresponds to the sound "th" of the word "them" in English.

And also on the Tip of the tongue

The tip of the tongue(tarafou-l-lisānin contact on the incisal papilla,slightly below the letter ل (Lam) and,





By being accompanied by the nasal sound from the nasal cavity is the zone of articulation of the sound ن(Noun), which corresponds to the sound "n" in the english word "neutral".



The tip of the tongue in an "almost-contact"(the contact is not realized) on the incisa papilla and slightly below the Noun area(ن) is the articulation site of the sound ر(Ra),






which corresponds to the "rrolled Spanish, which is found in the word "perro".





The small slit between the incisors is the channel through which the sound pass during the pronunciation of this letter





and without which the point of articulation would be obstructed and would lead to an excessive vibration of the tongue.