The Throat

Little reminder...

The Vocal Strings are ligaments lined by muscles on which one can consciously act.


The whole is covered with a mucosa that increases the vibratory effect.




The Glottic or Larynx part (set of cartilages, ligaments and muscles)





containing the vocal cords, the folds of which are stretched horizontally under the effect of the muscles acting as valves, thus releasing a flow of air towards the supraglottic part.


The Larynx, Vibrating Body

 The organ of phonation, since it plays a very important role in the emission of vocal soundsthe larynx is placed in the neck at the upper end of the respiratory shaft.




This vibrating instrument is placed in the neck, on the respiratory air path, between the exhalation blower,

namely the lungs,






and the resonance cavities which will modulate the primary laryngeal sound.






The larynx is not fixed in the neck: it moves up and down when speaking.






It rises for high-pitched sounds and lowers for low-pitched sounds.

The middle of the throat which corresponds to the epiglottis or laryngo-pharynx is a cavity of resonance.


The epiglottis is lowered to close the trachea.


The uvula closes the nasal passage.


The Pharynx is surrounded by horse shoe muscles, the constrictorslowermiddle and upper)used in some languages.


In English or French, there are no sounds produced by the pharynx, which are called "pharyngals".

The Larynx

The larynx is formed of a cartilaginousframework held in place by an internal and external musculature, and coated with a mucous membrane with

characteristic folds.




The cartilages which constitute it articulateat the bottom to the trachea and are attached to the buccal floor, via the hyoid bone.




Directly in connection with the integument of the neck(Adam's apple), the larynx opens back into the pharynx just before the esophagus.

The larynx consists of a series of super imposed cartilages.



The lower cartilage(the cricoid cartilage )appears as a differentiated ring of the trachea, closed behind by a vertical plate which gives it the appearance of a signet ring.




At the edge of the signet's chestnut, two small pyramids(arytenoid cartilage)slide and swivelThey serve as a point of attachment posterior to the vocal cords.



The vocal cords are inserted forward in the angle of a voluminous cartilage(the thyroid cartilage) in the form of a shield or prow of a ship, whose anterior projection takes the name of "apple of Adam".





By tilting under this shield, the cricoid ring carries with it the arytenoid pyramids.





Thus, the two points of attachment of the vocal cords are separated, ensuring their tensioning by contraction of the tensormuscles, the cricothyroid muscles.

Components of the Throat

The Bottom of the throat

اقصى الحلق


Designates the location of the vocal cordsand their associated sounds are:




# هHa), which corresponds to the "haspirated sound, of the word "have" in English.







# ءHamza), which corresponds to a "blow of glottis".







The vocal cordswhen producing the ه(Ha) sound will be partially parted,






More open for sound ء(hamzavocalized,







and closed for ء(Hamza) having As-soukoun (absence of vowels).

The Epiglottis

وصط الحلق

Wassât al Halq

 Etymologically, this term literally means "the middle of the throat", because,



situated between the uvula(above), and the vocal cords(below) corresponds to the real articulatory middle of the pharynx.






This is the articulation zone of the sound ع (Eain), and ح().






There is no possible occlusion in the pharynx, but a tightening,







due in particular to the recoil of the back of the tongue which allows the production of the sound ع(Eain).





When the friction zone is produced further forward, at the edges of the epiglottis, the sound ح(Ha)is produced.




The tongue has an effect on the configuration of the vocal tract, in the production of vowels as in that of consonants, by friction, occlusion or reduction of the vocal tract.