The point of articulation is the place where an obstruction in the passage of air is found in the buccal cavity.
In general, it can be said that the point of articulation is the place where the tongue is placed to obstruct the passage of the air channel.
The point of articulation can be located in the following places:
# Lips, labial or bilabial articulation (exo-labial and endos-labial);
# Teeth, tooth joints;
Lip and teeth, labio-dental joint;
# Alveoli, ie the internal gums of the upper and lower incisors, alveolar and post-alveolar articulation;
The palate, given to its large surface area, we can distinguish pre-palatal, media-palatal and post-palatal articulation;
#The sail of the palate, soft palate, velar articulation;
#The uvula, articulation known as uvular;
Pharynx, pharyngeal articulation;
# Glottis, glottal articulation;
# The epiglottis, epiglottal articulation;
# The Tongue:
Postero-dorsal articulation(posterior and dorsal part of the tongue),
Antero-dorsal articulation(anterior and dorsal part of the tongue),
Articulation laminale(the tip of the tongue),
And sub-lamina(the underside of the tip of the tongue).
The occlusive or explosive consonants are thus produced by a complete closure of the respiratory channel,
and not a simple contraction, which differentiates them from the continuous ones.
The occlusion takes place in two steps:
}Stopping the air column by the sudden closure of the expiratory channel;
}Release of the internal air by the sudden release of the occlusion.
English language contains the following occlusives:
# Deaf Oral(presence of breath, non-vibration of the vocal cords):
/P/ bilabiale (proper),
/t/ apico-dental or alveo-dental (turtle),
/k/ palatal or dorso-velar (crusty);
#Oral sounded(the vocal cord enter in vibration):
/b/ bilabiale (baby),
/d/ apico-dentale or alveo-dental (darling), /g/ palatal or dorso-velar (gorilla);
# Nasales: /m/ bilabiale (mother), /n/ apico-dentale (no), /gn/ as for the end of the world "king" in english;
Fricative(or constrictive) consonants are produced by a narrowing of the expiratory channel, which, unlike occlusives, does not go as far as complete closure.
It is essentially the lips and the tonguewhich, depending on their position and their particular muscular tension, determine the type of friction achieved.
#the sound /f/ like in the word "french", is a fricative labio-dentale deaf;
#The /v/ like in the word "volcano", is a fricative labio-dentalvoiced;
# The /s/, like in the word "space" is an unvoiced alveolar fricativeconsonant;
#The /z/, like in the word "base" which is written "s" Between vowels or "z" is a voiced alveolar fricative consonant;
# The /ch/, like in the word "choice" is an unvoiced post-alveolar fricative and is usually written "ch", but also "sh" or "ssh" in the words respectively of English and German origin.
#le /j/ like in the name "Joyce" is a voiced post-alveolar fricative
#The usual "r" sound of the French language like in the word "Paris", is a fricative(called vibrating)uvular voiced;
#The /w/ is a fricative semi-consonant dorso-velar and bilabiale voiced like in the world "wonderfull" in english.
A spiral consonant is a consonant produced by a moderate approximation of the phonatory organs which does not go so far as to produce the characteristic fricative noise of the fricatives.
They are part of the constrictives.
Among the spirantes, French admits:
# The labio-palatal semi-vowel, /ui/ at the initial of the word "huile" in french;
# The semi-vowel labio-velar, /w/ at the initial of the word "oui" in french, which has two points of articulation;
# The semi-vowel palatal /j/, noted by the digraph "ll", as in the word "briller" in french, it is also written 'y', especially in borrowing words, like "yurt";
# The nasal consonant dorso post-palatale /gn/ at the initial of french word "gnon";
# The voiced alveolar side spiralconsonant /l/ as in "lake".
An affricated consonant is a consonant composed of two successive phases:
An occlusive phase and a fricative phaseproduced in time necessary for the production of a simple occlusive or fricative
It should be noted that these two phases are necessarily homogeneous, ie they must occur at the same point of articulation.
For example, english has a deaf alveolar affricated consonant, the /ts/ in some words of foreign origin, such as "tzar".
A rolled consonant, is a vibrating consonant
produced by multiple vibrations between the articulation site and the articulating organ.
The /r/, is a voiced alveolar rolled consonant,
which does not exist in English but is found in many Latin languages(Spanish, Italian...), Arabic, Slavic langages (Russian, Polish ...).